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Fig fruit

Fig: a fruit for health


Fig is grown in many parts of the world with moderate climate. Figs are eaten dry and fresh both, as fresh figs are highly perishable, so fresh figs are consumed only in nearer market but dry figs are exported for long distance markets. Fresh and dry both fruits are rich in fibre; potassium, calcium, and iron. Fresh figs are highly sensitive to physical damage, and susceptible to disease and infections. Preharvest and postharvest conditions are very important to improve fruit quality and postharvest life. due to its nutritional quality, fresh fruit breeders are taking it as a challenge for development of new improved varieties for long shelf life of fresh fruits.

Effect of aqueous extract of fig fruit ( Ficus Carica ) on wound healing in albino rabbits

Abstract and Figures

Background and aims: Skin ulcers are caused by various reasons such as physical, chemical, and biological damages. Wound healing has long been considered one of the most important issues in surgery. Extensive research has been employed in this field and various chemical, herbal, homeopathic, and physical methods such as laser therapy have been used for treatment. Nowadays, wound healing is one of the most important aims of medical science. Furthermore, people prefer to use natural drugs because of fewer side effects. Therefore, the present study was designed considering these issues. Methods: For this study, 6 albino rabbits with an average weight of 3 kg were purchased. After preparing the rabbits, two pairs of full-thickness wounds were created in a completely round shape with a diameter of almost 6.30 mm on both sides of the spine in two anterior and posterior parts at a distance of 3 cm from the midline of the body. The animals were divided into 2 groups of 3 rabbits, including 1 experimental group and 1 control group. The wounds of the experimental group were treated with fig fruit extract while the wounds of the control group received no treatment. The wounds were macroscopically examined at 4, 7, 12, 16, and 20 days after surgery. Results: The results of t-test showed a significant difference (P<0.05) among the groups on all days. Meanwhile, the average wound area significantly decreased in the group which was treated with the extract of fig fruit. Conclusion: This study showed that fig fruit extract contains phenolic compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties which can accelerate the wound healing process.

Chemistry and Nutritional Value of Fresh and Dried Fig (Ficus carica)


One of the most significant agricultural plants of the tropics and subtropics is the fig fruit (Ficus carica L.). The Mediterranean diet includes both dried and fresh figs. Ficus carica fruits are consumed fresh or dried and used to make jam or alcoholic beverages. The primary phytochemical elements contained in dried and fresh figs of various types are discussed in this chapter. The two main phytoconstituent substances identified in dried and fresh figs are phenolic acids and flavonoids. Their levels are intensely regulated by several variables, including fruit color, fruit part, fruit ripeness, and drying time. The main flavonoids and phenolic acids in dried and fresh figs are quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, rutin, epicatechin, gallic acid, and chlorogenic acid. In addition, the amounts of phenolic compounds in figs are influenced by their ripening stage; ripe fruit has the highest concentrations. Regarding the impact of sun and air drying on the total amount of phytochemical components and the levels of particular carotenoids and phenolic compounds in figs, conflicting results have been reported in the literature. The utilization of fig extract as a functional ingredient in food items, clinical studies to investigate the positive impact of Phyto-extracts on human health, and the valorization of bio-wastes generated during the processing of figs should be the main goals of future endeavors. The primary goals of this work were to summarize the levels of phenolics and carotenoids in dried and fresh figs and to present the main components and phytochemicals in figs.

Can figs be beneficial to our health?

Figs can be beneficial to health in a variety of ways, including improving skin and hair health. They also tend to have high nutritional value for many.

A fig is a soft fruit with a thin skin that can be either green or purple. The flesh of a fig is typically red, and the entirety of the fruit is edible.

People have used figs to help treat health conditions related to the endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems, as well as the digestive tract.

This article explores the benefits and risks associated with fig consumption. It also discusses the nutritional content of both fresh and dried figs.

Phytochemical Composition and Health Benefits of Figs (Fresh and Dried): A Review of Literature from 2000 to 2022


With their rich history dating back 6000 years, figs are one of the oldest known plants to mankind and are a classical fruit in the Mediterranean diet. They possess a diverse array of bioactive components, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and tocopherols, which have been used for centuries in traditional medicine for their health-promoting effects addressing gastrointestinal, respiratory, inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular issues. This review summarizes the updated information on the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and other functional properties of fresh and dried figs cultivated in various parts of the world, highlighting variation in phenolic composition based on cultivar, harvesting time, maturity stage, processing, and fig parts. Additionally, the review delves into the bio-accessibility and bio-availability of bioactive components from figs and their potential influence on cardiovascular health, diabetes, obesity, and gut/digestive health. Data suggest that the intake of figs regularly in the diet, alone or with other dried fruits, increases select micronutrient intake and is associated with higher diet quality, respectively. Research in animal and human models of health and disease risk provide preliminary health benefits data on figs and their extracts from fig parts; however, additional well-controlled human studies, particularly using fig fruit, will be required to uncover and verify the potential impact of dietary intake of figs on modern day health issues.

Keywords: figs, phytochemicals, anthocyanins, health benefits, processing, extraction, bio-accessibility, diabetes, obesity

Miraculous Properties of Fig and Perspective of Modern Sciences


Fig tree which is also known as (Ficus Carica L) was mentioned once in Quran in surah AL-TEEN. In that same surah, God swore to figs because of its great benefits. Ficus carica L. is one of the oldest trees belonging to the family of Moraceae. Figs are not only delicious but are rich in minerals including potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and copper. It is a sweet fruit with multiple seeds and soft skin, which can be eaten when ripened or dried, and it is usually found in Asia, India. This paper aims to describe the properties of fig composition and nutrients, as well as its advantage and usage in trad medical practices in treating several health issues. The fig tree has been used as a therapy for various disease such as inflammation, gastric problems cancer, hepatoprotective, diabetes, constipation, and can also reduce Alzheimer's. Despite been rich in minerals, figs are good source of anti-ointment-inflammatory and anti-microbial which contain high amounts of phenolics, organic compound and volatile acid. Figs are also good source of fiber and vitamin A and K that contributes to healthy living. This review is to collect information about fig components and to determine the health and medical benefits of fig.

FIG: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions


Fig is a tree. The fruit is commonly eaten. The fruit and leaves are used to make medicine.

Fig FRUIT is used as a laxative to relieve constipation.

Fig LEAF is used for diabetes, high cholesterol, and skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and vitiligo.

Some people apply the milky sap (LATEX) from the tree directly to the skin to treat skin tumors and warts.

How does work?

Fig leaf contains chemicals that might help people with type 1 diabetes use insulin more efficiently.


Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

Diabetes. Early research suggests that a tea made from fig leaves may reduce insulin requirements in people with type 1 diabetes. It also seems to lower blood sugar levels after eating.

New insights of fig (Ficus carica L.) as a potential function food



Ficus carica Linn. (Fig), an important fruit tree of Moraceae family is originated from Asia. Fig fruit has been accepted widely by people all over the word due to its impressive health benefits and desirable organoleptic properties, which make it a new functional food.

Scope and approach

The up to date reports on nutrients and phytochemicals in fig are reviewed in this paper. Additionally, the health benefits and side effects reported in last decade are also summarized to fully understand this special fruit resource. As postharvest processing and variety can bring big difference in fig quality, these aspects are also discussed in this paper.

Key findings and conclusions

Figs are rich resources of bioactive phytochemicals with diverse structure characteristics. Prenylated phenolics are characteristic bioactive compounds in this fruit, which are rare in nature and present good antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective activities. Sugars, organic acids, coumarins and prenylated phenolics can be the marker chemicals for variety selection. The review would provide a valuable information for further exploitation and utilization of fig.

Fig “Ficus carica L.” and its by-products: A decade evidence of their health-promoting benefits towards the development of novel food formulations



The food industry constantly searches for natural derived bioactive molecules with preventive and therapeutic effects using innovative and sustainable strategies. Fig production and processing generate a considerable amount of by-products (leaves, pulp, peels, seeds, and latex) with limited commercial exploitation and negative impact on the environment. These by-products are important sources of high value-added ingredients, including anthocyanins and pectin’s that can be of particular interest to the food industry as functional colorants, emulsifiers, and additives.

Scope and approach

This review curates recent advances in the valorisation of fig by-products as valuable sources of bioactive molecules for functional food development. Special attention was given to widely used extraction processes, main bioactive compounds, relevant biological properties, and the application of recovered bioactives for functional food development.

Key findings and conclusions

Fig by-products are essential sources of structurally diverse bioactive molecules with unique antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, immunomodulatory and cardioprotective properties. Owing to these health-promoting potentials, an integral valorisation approach involving sustainable technologies to recover these high value-added ingredients and its utilisation in novel food formulation development should be further stimulated.

Graphical abstract

Ficus carica L. by-products (i.e., leaves, pulp, peels, seeds, latex) contain different bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, volatile compounds, pectin or ficin. These compounds show a wide variety of biological properties that can be further applied to develop novel functional foods.

The Healing Properties of Dried Figs (Ficus carica L.)Against Oxidative Stress Caused By Ethyl Alcohol in Rats


The aim of the study was determined to investigate the role of antioxidants on the lung and muscle tissues against oxidative stress induced by ethanol of dried fig (Ficus carica L.).The experimental animals were designed as Normal Control, 20% Ethanol, 10% FC and 10% FC + 20% Ethanol groups. Antioxidant defense system (ADS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated on the lungs and muscle tissues after the application of rats, ethyl alcohol and dried fig for 50 days. Lipid peroxidation resulting from ethyl alcohol consumption was found to decrease MDA levels in both tissues with FC-supplemented diet. As a result, oxidative stress caused by ethanol is caused by fluctuations in antioxidant defense system components in the lung and muscle, and dry fig has no clear healing effect against these fluctuations. Keywords: Fig, Antioxidant defense system, Malondialdehyde, Rats, Oxidative stress, Ethanol

Why is the fig tree the most healing fruit in the world?

Figs grow on the Ficus tree (Ficus carica), which is a member of the Mulberry family. They have an opening, called the "ostiole" or "eye," which is not connected to the tree, but which helps the fruit's development by increasing its communication with the environment.

I think that this tree bares a most unique fruit , and thus answers part of your question as to why the actual tree could be considered the most healing tree in the world due to its production of the fig. But the Fig Leaf is very healing, thus answering the rest of the question.

The fig leaf may Have Insulin-Lowering Properties. You probably do not think about the leaves of the fig tree as one of the editable parts but it is.

Figs' Potential Cardiovascular Effects: In animal studies, fig leaves have been shown to lower levels of triglycerides (a form in which fats circulate in the bloodstream), while in in vitro studies, fig leaves inhibited the growth of certain types of cancer cells. Researchers have not yet determined exactly which substances in fig leaves are responsible for these remarkable healing effects.

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Fig Fruit Extract with Olive Oil and Date-Palm Fruit Extract on Hepatic Toxicity of Oral Sub chronic Exposure to Some Nanoparticles in Wistar Rats

The aim is to study the possible protection of fig fruit extract with olive oil and date-palm fruit extract (FOD) as natural antioxidants in decreasing the sub chronic toxicity hazards of SiO2NPs, Al2O3NPs, or ZnONPs in male rats treated for 75 days. We used 80 male Wistar rats distributed into eight groups according to the treatment. The FOD antioxidant treatments were used at their recommended antioxidant doses. All nanoparticles (100 mg/kg) were given orally and daily for 75 days. Compared with the control, the oral administration of different NPs alone led to dramatic oxidative stress, liver function parameters, histopathological, p53, and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6). The FOD-NPs-treated groups recorded significantly reduced hepatotoxicity effects compared to those treated with NPs alone. In conclusion, the FOD supplementations to the rats ameliorate the NP’s hepatotoxicity.

Effects of Dry Figs on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptoms, perceived Stress Levels and the Quality of Life.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of eating dried figs on the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea, perceived stress levels, and quality of life during all menstrual cycles.

METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed with 99 midwifery students. Each student was randomly assigned to the placebo (n = 32), cinnamon (n = 34), or dried fig (n = 33) groups. Data were gathered through the Total Dysmenorrhea Score, a descriptive information form, the Visual Analogue Scale, a pain duration assessment form, the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-TR.

RESULTS: During the 3 menstrual cycles in which the intervention was implemented, the dried-fig group had significantly lower scores for pain severity and duration, menstrual distress, and perceived stress than did those of the cinnamon and placebo groups. In addition, during these 3 cycles, the dried-fig group had significantly higher quality-of-life scores than the cinnamon and placebo groups.

CONCLUSION: The results showed that eating dried figs during menstruation decreased pain severity and duration, menstrual symptoms, and perceived stress and increased quality of life.

Fig fruit extract can be used instead of low potent corticosteroid in mild to moderate cases of atopic dermatitis.


BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic, relapsing and inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritus and xerosis (dry skin). Its prevalence is on the increase worldwide, particularly in children. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interaction of genetic, environmental and immunological factors, its definitive treatment is difficult.

OBJECTIVE: This clinical trial was designed as equivalence study to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of edible dried fig fruit on the severity of AD as measured with scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD), in comparison with Hydrocortisone 1.0% as the routine treatment of AD and base cream as a placebo.

METHOD: Forty five children aged 4 months to 14 years with mild to moderate AD (SCORAD<50) were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to three treatment groups in order to perform a randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The patients were instructed to apply their allocated creams twice a day for two weeks.

RESULTS: The randomised, placebo-controlled trial indicates that the new treatment had significantly increased efficacy in terms of reducing the SCORAD index, pruritus and intensity scores in comparison with Hydrocortisone 1.0% (p<0.05) and the placebo failed to ameliorate the symptoms.

CONCLUSION: Safety, efficacy, tolerability, and symptom relief were considerable in fig fruit extract in comparison with hydrocortisone 1.0%. This clinical trial suggests that fig fruit extract can be used instead of low potent corticosteroid in mild to moderate cases of AD.

Abscisic Acid Standardized Fig () Extracts Ameliorate Postprandial Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses in Healthy Adults.


Abscisic acid (ABA) can improve glucose homeostasis and reduce inflammation in mammals by activating lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2). This study examined the effects of two fig fruit extracts (FFEs), each administered at two different ABA doses, on glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) to a standard glucose drink. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 10 healthy adults consumed 4 test beverages containing FFE with postprandial glucose and insulin assessed at regular intervals over 2 h to determine GI and II responses. Test beverages containing 200 mg FFE-50× and 1200 mg FFE-10× significantly reduced GI values by -25% (= 0.001) and -24% (= 0.002), respectively. Two lower doses of FFE also reduced GI values compared with the reference drink (by approximately -14%), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Addition of FFE to the glucose solution significantly reduced II values at all dosages and displayed a clear dose-response reduction: FFE-50× at 100 mg and 200 mg (-14% (<0.05) and -24% (= 0.01), respectively) and FFE-10× at 600 mg and 1200 mg (-16% (<0.05) and -24% (= 0.01), respectively). FFE supplementation is a promising nutritional intervention for the management of acute postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis, and it is a possible adjunctive treatment for glycemic management of chronic metabolic disorders such as prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract.


BACKGROUND: In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract.

METHODS: Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2 (-)) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow's feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo.

RESULTS: In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxy anisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ficus carica paste for the management of functional constipation.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Constipation affects up to 20% of the world's population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with Ficus carica paste could be used to treat constipation in Korean subjects with functional constipation.

METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects with functional constipation were orally supplemented with either F. carica paste (n=40) or placebo (n=40) for 8 weeks. We measured the efficacy and safety of F. carica paste. Primary outcomes (colon transit time) and secondary outcomes (questionnaire related to defecation) were compared before and after the 8-week intervention period.

RESULTS: F. carica paste supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in colon transit time and a significant improvement in stool type and abdominal discomfort compared with the placebo. Blood parameters and clinical findings for organ toxicity remained within normal ranges.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that F. carica paste may have beneficial effects in subjects suffering from constipation.

Crude Edible Fig () Leaf Extract Prevents Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-Induced DNA Strand Breaks in Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE)/Comet Assay


Fig () trees are among the oldest plants on earth. The chemo preventive properties of constituent polyphenols and fiber that implicate figs in having a functional role in averting cancer have not been fully elucidated. We therefore hypothesized that fig leaf extract would inhibit (or attenuate) DES-induced DNA single-strand breakage in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis, MCF10A cells were treated with DES (1, 10, 100μM), crude fig leaf extract (5, 10, 15 μL), or concomitant doses of DES (100 μM)/fig leaf extract (5, 10, 15 μL). The cells were analyzed for DNA strand breakage using the SCGE/COMET assay with mean olive tail moment as a marker of DNA damage. DES induced DNA strand breaks at all treatment levels compared to DMSO and non-treatment controls. DES at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 μM produced mean olive tail moments of 1.2082 (177.6%), 1.2702 (186.7%), and 1.1275 (165.7%), respectively, which were statistically significantly (p<0.05) higher than the DMSO control value (0.6803). Exposure to fig leaf extract produced no DNA damage. Rather, a desirable dose-dependent reduction in DES-induced DNA strand breaks was observed. Composite treatment of MCF10A cells with DES and fig leaf extract attenuated DES-induced DNA strand breaks. Taken together, these results suggest a potential mechanism for cancer chemoprevention. Additional studies are necessary to identify relevant active ingredients, confirm the mechanism of action, and further elucidate the therapeutic potential of fig leaf extract for early-stage breast cancer chemoprevention.

Ameliorative or corrective effects of Fig "" extract on nickel-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.


Many heavy metals and metalloids (e.g., Pb, Cd, and Ni) can contaminate the environment and cause severe health problems. Through this study, investigated the possible corrective effects of extract (FCE) against nickel (Ni) induced stress response and damage on the liver of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 rats per group) and co-treated with FCE (350 mg/kg) and exposed to Nickel chloride (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The volatile compounds of FCE were characterized by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with GC-MS, and the biochemical parameters of stress were determined. The SPME-GC/MS analysis of FCE indicated the presence of thirty (30)Phyto-bioactive compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, organic acids, ketones, furans, terpenes, ester and others. The best capacity for scavenging DPPH free radicals and metal chelating were found with the IC values of 0.49 and 2.91 mg/mL, respectively. Ni induced damage to various macromolecules. Malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels were significantly increased in Ni exposed group compared to control group and co-treatment with FCE reduced the levels of these parameters. In conclusion, current findings showed that Ni-induced oxidative damage and the administration of FCE can improve correct and restore the alteration in the rat liver.

Antioxidant Activity and Effectiveness of Fig Extract in Counteracting Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats


Figs are the edible fruits of the fig tree,L., that have been used for centuries for human consumption and in traditional medicine, to treat skin problems, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. Our previous study investigated the presence of phenolic compounds in aqueous extracts of two Algerian popular fig varieties,(Az) and(Ta), as well as their in vitro antioxidant activity. In this study, we assessed hydroethanolic extracts of these fig varieties. The total phenolic content was measured, along with the phenolic profile. Rutin was determined to be the dominant phenolic compound, followed by vanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, rosmarinic acid (in Az only), and cinnamic acid. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated both in vitro (DPPH and FRAP assays) and in vivo, in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. In all assays, the fig extract-especially the dark-peeled fig variety-showed antioxidant potency. The administration of fig extract resulted in a reduction in liver damage, expressed by both different biochemical markers and histopathological study (less degraded liver architecture, reduced fibrosis, and only mild inflammation). A dose-dependent therapeutic effect was observed. The extract from the dark-peeled fig variety, Az, was characterized by a higher phenolic content and a stronger antioxidant activity than the extract from the light-peeled variety-Ta. Our study justifies the use of figs in traditional healing and shows the potential of using fig extracts in natural medicines and functional foods.

Consumption of fig fruits grown in Oman can improve memory, anxiety, and learning skills in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.


Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. Several reports have suggested neurotoxic effects of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and role of oxidative stress in AD. Figs are rich in fiber, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, vitamin K, and are a good source of proanthocyanins and quercetin which demonstrate potent antioxidant properties. We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4% figs grown in Oman on the memory, anxiety, and learning skills in APPsw/Tg2576 (Tg mice) mice model for AD. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4 months and after 15 months using the Morris water maze test, rota-rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open-field test. Tg mice that were fed a control diet without figs showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial, position discrimination learning ability, and motor coordination compared to the wild-type control mice on the same diet, and Tg mice fed on 4% fig diet supplementation for 15 months. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation of figs may be useful for the improvement of cognitive and behavioral deficits in AD.

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of dried fig against oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.


The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant role of dried fig (DF) (Ficus carica L.) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Experiment was designed as normal Control, 20% ethanol, 10% DF and 10% DF+20% ethanol groups. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant role of the dried DF supplementation feed against ethanol induced oxidant if stress were evaluated by liver histopathological changes, measuring liver damage serum enzymes (LDSE), antioxidant defense system (ADS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in various tissues of rats following the exposure of experimental for 50days. The biochemical analysis showed a considerable increase the LDSE in the ethanol group as compared to that of control group whereas, decreased in 10% DF+20% ethanol group as compared to that of ethanol group. In addition, the DF supplementation diet restored the ethanol-induced MDA and ADS towards to control. The hepatoprotection of DF is further substantiated by the almost normal histologic findings of liver in 10% DF+20% ethanol group against degenerative changes in ethanol group. The results indicated that the DF could be as important as diet-derived antioxidants and antihepatotoxicity in preventing oxidative damage in the tissues by inhibiting the production of ethanol-induced free radicals and hepatotoxicity in rats.

Fig extract and extra virgin olive oil have a powerful antioxidant and many protective effects against cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 5-FU


5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a chemotherapeutic drug, has adverse effects on heart and kidney functions. Ficus Carica (fig) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) are natural sources which have antioxidant effects. This study investigated the synergistic effects of fig extract and EVOO against cardiac and renal damage induced by 5-FU. Forty rats were equally divided into five groups and treated with physiological saline (control), five intravenous injections of 5-FU (40 mg/kg b.w) (5-FU), fig (1 g/kg b.w/day, orally) with 5-FU (Fig/5-FU), EVOO (7 g/kg b.w/day, orally) with 5-FU (EVOO/5-FU), combined treatment of fig and EVOO with five 5-FU injections (Fig/EVOO/5-FU). After 30 days, blood and tissue samples (Heart and kidney) were collected to be used in the examinations. 5-FU significantly increased serum creatine kinase activity, renal biomarkers, cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β as well as cardiac and renal lipid peroxides (malondialdehyde). Meanwhile, serum levels of immunoglobulins, interleukins (IL-10, IL-12), and antioxidants of heart and kidney tissues were significantly decreased in 5-FU group. It also downregulated cardiac and renal Bcl2, andupregulated cardiac troponin and renin gene expressions. As well, histological alterations clarified that 5-FU induced cardiac cell damage, distorted renal corpuscles and tubules, inflammatory cell infiltrations, and severe congestion and hemorrhage in the blood vessels. The treatment with fig and olive oil, especially the combined treatment, modulated the toxic effect of 5-FU on the heart and kidney. Our results revealed that fig extract and EVOO have a powerful antioxidant and many protective effects against cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 5-FU, especially when using fig and EVOO together as a combined treatment.



The antioxidative activities of water extract (WE) and crude hot-water soluble polysaccharide (PS) from Ficus carica L. fruit were investigated using various assays in vitro, including scavenging abilities on DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and reducing power. The immunity activities of PS were evaluated using the carbon clearance test and serum hemolysin analysis in mice. In addition, total phenolics and flavonoids contents were also determined. Both WE and PS have notable scavenging activities on DPPH with the EC(50) values of 0.72 and 0.61 mg/ml, respectively. The PS showed higher scavenging activity than WE on superoxide radical (EC(50), 0.95 mg/ml) and hydroxyl anion radical (scavenging rate 43.4% at concentration of 4 mg/ml). The PS (500 mg/kg) also has a significant increase in the clearance rate of carbon particles and serum hemolysin level of normal mice. The results indicate that both WE and PS might be applicable in healthy medicine and food industry.

Gold Nanoparticles enchanced the anti-oxidative properties of the fig extract in targeting kidney damage by cisplatin.


BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (CisPt) is one of the most widely used and highly effective drugs for the treatment of various solid tumors, unfortunately acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered one of its side effects through several mechanisms including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines. Due to the poor effect of AKI therapy, the use of nanoparticles loaded with natural extracts for delivering to the kidney molecules are desirable.

AIM: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of different concentrations of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as a carrier for Ficus carica L. (Fig) leaves extract against CisPt induced AKI.

METHODS: Seventy male albino rats were used and divided into seven groups. After the experimental period, blood was withdrawn, serum was separated for determination of urea, creatinine, homocystein (Hcy) and folic acid while reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hydroxyproline content (Hyp) were evaluated in kidney tissue homogenate.

RESULTS: CisPt induced AKI in rats and results in a significant increase in the levels of serum urea, creatinine, Hcy and kidney Hyp, lipid peroxidation along with a significant reduction of kidney GSH, NO and TAC compared to the control rats. Treatment with Au-NPs and Fig extract particularly in a ratio of (3:2) respectively was shown to improve renal functions with efficient capacity in scavenging ROS and reduced AKI severity.

CONCLUSION: Au-NPs enhanced the anti-oxidative properties of the Fig extract in targeting kidney damaged tissue and reduced oxidative toxicity induced by CisPt.

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