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Effects of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Consumption on Health Outcomes: A Mini-Review


Mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely planted in Asia. Mulberry fruits are generally consumed as fresh fruits, jams and juices. They contain considerable amounts of biologically active ingredients that might be associated with some potential pharmacological activities that are beneficial for health. Therefore, they have been traditionally used in traditional medicine. Studies have reported that the presence of bioactive components in mulberry fruits, including alkaloids and flavonoid, are associated with bioactivities such as antioxidant. One of the most important compounds in mulberry fruits is anthocyanins which are water-soluble bioactive ingredients of the polyphenol class. Studies have shown that mulberry fruits possess several potential pharmacological health benefits including anti-cholesterol, anti-obesity and hepatoprotective effects which might be associated with the presence of some of these bioactive compounds. However, human intervention studies on the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits are limited. Therefore, future studies should explore the effect of mulberry fruit consumption on human health and elucidate the detailed compounds. This paper provides an overview of the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits.

Keywords: mulberry, polyphenols, anthocyanins, health, nutrition

Mulberry leaves and their potential effects against cardiometabolic risks: a review of chemical compositions, biological properties and clinical efficacy

Results: Mulberry leaves contain numerous chemical constituents. 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), phenolics and flavonoids are the prominent functional compounds. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that mulberry leaves possessed various beneficial effects against cardiometabolic risks, including antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidaemic, antiobesity, antihypertensive, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and cardioprotective effects.

Conclusions: Mulberry leaves could be a promising therapeutic option for modulating cardiometabolic risks. However, further investigations should be performed to substantiate the potential of mulberry leaves in practical uses.

Keywords: Morus spp., hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, obesity, hypertension, oxidative stress, cardiovascular diseases

Medicinal parts of mulberry


The hypoglycemic extracts and compounds in different medicinal parts of mulberry were systematically reviewed.

Mulberry has broad prospects in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

The hypoglycemic compounds in mulberry are mainly flavonoids, polysaccharides, and alkaloids.

Their hypoglycemic effects involve the regulation of glucose metabolism, protection of pancreatic β-cells, and antioxidation.

Acta Scientific NUTRITIONAL HEALTH (ISSN:2582-1423)

Role of Mulberry Leaves in Human Nutrition: A Review


Diabetes and different cardiovascular diseases are major problems across the globe for the human. Different traditional and

modern medicinal techniques are being in use to cure these problems. Use of herbal medicines is one of them. Present review was

conducted to determine the effects of mulberry plant powder for the treatment of these diseases. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is important medicinal plant that contains numerous bioactive compounds including antioxidants i.e. flavonoids, phenolics as well as dietary

fiber. Owing to presence of bioactive components, it shows strong effect against maladies like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and

viral activities. Mulberry leaf powder is characterized for physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, pH, acidity, TSS, TPC).

Moreover, due to high nutrients concentration, mulberry leaves are considered as vital for health.

Keywords: Mulberry Leaves; Phenolic Compounds; Bioactive Compounds; Diabetes; Cancer

Potential Healing Effect Of Mulberry Leaf Extract Oinment on Burn Injury in rats


Objective: Mulberry leaf contains Vitamin C, Flavonoids, Oxyresveratrol and Saponin, which accelerated reepithelialization and increases wound contraction in burn healing. This study was designed to asses the effect of mulberry leaf extract ointment (Morus Alba L) on number of fibroblast and collagen fraction area in second degree burns.Materials and methods: This was an experimental design for 6 days with 24 male in Sprague dawley rat randomly selected and divided into 4 groups. The back of Sprague dawley male rats were shaved and given burns using 4 x 2cm iron plate which was put in 98o boiling water for 5 minutes and pasted for 10 seconds and smeared with distilled water, and ointment of mulberry leaf extract. Group I was a positive control (silver sulfadiazide ointment), Group II was a negative control (ointment base), Group III (mulberry leaf extract ointment 10%) and Group IV (mulberry leaf extract ointment 20%). The number of fibroblasts and collagen was evaluated with staining of hematoxylin eosin and staining mallory trichrome.Result and discussion: The mean of fibroblasts I, II, III,and IV was 21.33 ± 1.74, 13.28 ± 1.48, 17.56 ± 1.75, and 23.11 ± 2.38, respectively. The mean collagen fraction area I, II, III, and IV was 21, 11±7,42 , 16,18 ±7,72, 26,078 ± 8, 00 , and 25,79±8,33 respectively. One way Anova followed LSD test showed significant different in mean of between each treatment group obtained significant differences (p <0.05). The mean number of fibroblast in the 10% and 20% ointment extract were significantly different compared with negative controls. Collagen fraction area in treatment group with 10 and 20% ointment were significantly different from that of negative control group, and was not significantly different from silver sulfadiazine groupConclusion: The mulberry leaf extract can be an alternative treatment for second degree burnsInternational Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 02 April’21 Page: 235-239

Nutritional composition, phytochemical extraction, and pharmacological potential of mulberry


Mulberry is one of the underutilised fruit with high perishability. The various species of mulberry fruit are characterized by their natural colours as black, white, and red. These fruits are rich sources of the natural pigment anthocyanin, as well as containing substantial quantities of vitamins and minerals. Black mulberry contains a large amount of phytochemicals, particularly flavonoids (anthocyanin) and phenolics (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, and rutin). These compounds are responsible for its superior pharmacological effects, including antioxidant activity, hyperglycemia, and anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous research were conducted on different extraction techniques to separate bioactive compounds from mulberry. Various components of Morus species also possess potent nutraceutical capabilities, leading to a wide range of clinical trials for identifying its beneficial properties. The present review concentrates on the most recent literature concerning nutritional composition and phytochemical profiling of three distinct species of mulberries, including their fruit, seeds, and leaves. Furthermore, it investigates the process of extracting bioactive compounds from mulberries and investigates their potential uses in pharmacology as well as in the development of functional food or nutraceutical products. This research thoroughly analyzes innovative approaches for utilizing an underutilized perishable crop to generate economically viable functional products.

Mulberry as a Life Savior - A Review


Plants play an important role in well-being of human beings and have been witnessed by their presence in the Rigveda and Ayurveda. Among those plants, Morus spp. is the one having versatile nature because of the presence of numerous phytochemicals in its different parts and also termed as ‘Kalpavrishka’. Mulberry (Morus spp.) belongs to family Moracea and is widely planted in Asia. Although Morus spp. are the primary food of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. widely grown for rearing of silkworm. A wide range of the phytochemicals present in the leaves, fruit, root and wood of Morus because of which they possess wide range of biological functions (Antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, crypto protective and neuroprotective activities etc.). This review reveals the wide range of important life savior pharmacological properties of mulberry plant. Keywords: Mulberry, Phytochemicals, Pharmacological properties, Morus spp., Biological functions

The phenolic components extracted from mulberry fruits as bioactive compounds against cancer


In Asia, mulberry has long been used to treat various infectious and internal ailments as a traditional medication. The compounds found in it have the potential to improve human health. Because there is no approved and defined evaluation procedure, it has not been formally or scientifically recognized. As a result of these investigations, a new frontier in traditional Chinese medicine has opened up, with the possibility of modernization, for the interaction between active components of mulberry and their biological activities. These studies have used current biotechnological technologies. For ages, mulberry has been used as an herbal remedy in Asia to cure various diseases and internal disorders. It has a high concentration of bioactive chemicals that benefit human health. The most abundant phenolic components extracted from white mulberry leaves are flavonoids (Kuwanons, Moracinflavans, Moragrols, and Morkotins), phenolic acids, alkaloids, and so forth. Flavonoids, benzofurans, chalcones, and alkaloids have been discovered to have cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines. There is growing evidence that mulberry fruits can potentially prevent cancer and other aging-related disorders due to their high concentration of bioactive polyphenolic-rich compounds and macro and micronutrients. Anthocyanins are rapidly absorbed after eating, arriving in the plasmalemma within 15–50 min and entirely removed after 6–8 hr. Due to a lack of an approved and consistent technique for its examination, it has yet to be formally or scientifically recognized. The mulberry plant is commercially grown for silkworm rearing, and less attention is paid to its bioactive molecules, which have a lot of applications in human health. This review paper discusses the phenolic compounds of white mulberry and black mulberry in detail concerning their role in cancer prevention.

Assessing the Nutritional-Value-Based Therapeutic Potentials and Non-Destructive Approaches for Mulberry Fruit Assessment


Among different fruits, mulberry is the most highlighted natural gift in its superior nutritional and bioactive composition, indispensable for continuing a healthy life. It also acts as a hepatoprotective immunostimulator and improves vision, anti-microbial, anti-cancer agent, anti-stress activity, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective functions, and anti-obesity action. The mulberry fruits also help reduce neurological disorders and mental illness. The main reason for that is the therapeutic potentials present in the nutritional components of the mulberry fruit. The available methods for assessing mulberry fruits are mainly chromatographic based, which are destructive and possess many limitations. However, recently some non-invasive techniques, including chlorophyll fluorescence, image processing, and hyperspectral imaging, were employed to detect various mulberry fruit attributes. The present review attempts to collect and explore available information regarding the nutritional and medicinal importance of mulberry fruit. Besides, non-destructive methods established for the fruit are also elaborated. This work helps encourage many more research works to dug out more hidden information about the essential nutrition of mulberry that can be helpful to resolve many mental-illness-related issues.

Effects of blackberry (Morus nigra L.) consumption on serum concentration of lipoproteins, apo A-I, apo B, and high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein and blood pressure in dyslipidemic patients


BACKGROUND: This study investigated blackberry (Persian mulberry) effects on apo A-I, apo B, high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in dyslipidemic patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this 8-week randomized clinical trial, 72 dyslipidemic patients were randomly divided into two groups: Intervention (300 mL/day blackberry juice with pulp) and control group (usual diets). Before and after the intervention, fasting blood samples were taken from both groups and serum concentration of lipoprotein, apo A-I and apo B, serum lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and triglyceride), hs-CRP were measured. Blood pressure before and after the study was measured with a mercury manometer.

RESULTS: At week 8 in the intervention group, apo A-I and HDL increased significantly (P = 0.015, P = 0.001, respectively), apo B and hs-CRP decreased significantly (P = 0.044, P = 0.04, respectively). Mean changes in apo A-I and HDL and apo B/apo A-I ratio were significant between the groups (P = 0.005, P = 0.014, and P = 0.009, respectively). After 8 weeks, there was a significant difference between hs-CRP mean values (P = 0.01) of the groups. At week 8, SBP decreased significantly (P = 0.005) in the intervention group with no significant differences for SBP mean values between the groups. No significant changes were observed in other lipid parameters and DBP in the intervention group and between the groups.

CONCLUSION: Blackberry consumption may exert beneficial effects on apolipoproteins, blood pressure, and inflammatory markers in individuals with lipid disorders.

Academic Cite:

Sahar Keshtkar Aghababaee, Mohammadreza Vafa, Farzad Shidfar, Atefeh Tahavorgar, Mahmoodreza Gohari, Davod Katebi, Vida Mohammadi. Effects of blackberry (Morus nigra L.) consumption on serum concentration of lipoproteins, apo A-I, apo B, and high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein and blood pressure in dyslipidemic patients. J Res Med Sci. 2015 Jul ;20(7):684-691.

The effect of black mulberry (Morus nigra) consumption on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's dementia: A pilot feasibility study.


The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and the possible effects of black mulberry on cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 39 participants aged 65+ with mild-to-moderate AD were involved and 20 subjects were administered 20g of black mulberry concentrate daily for 12 weeks (intervention group), while 19 received no intervention (control group). Cognitive assessment utilized with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) tests; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) used for depression screening. At the end of the study, although MMSE scores decreased (p = 0.003) and GDS-15 scores increased (p = 0.034) in control group, there was no change in intervention group. On the contrary, ADAS-Cog scores decreased in intervention group (p = 0.002) while the control group showed no improvement. This study showed that treatment of black mulberry (Morus nigra) for 12 weeks may slightly improve cognitive function in patients with AD.

Hydro-alcoholic extract ofreduces fasting blood glucose and HbA1c% in diabetic patients, probably via competitive and allosteric interaction with alpha-glucosidase enzyme; a clinical trial andanalysis.


OBJECTIVES: 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), the main active component found in() is reported to be effective in controlling diabetes. We have evaluated the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract ofleaves on the fasting blood glucose (FBS) and hemoglobin A1c% (HbA1c%) in diabetic patients. Furthermore, we compared the interaction of 1-DNJ and glucose molecules with the alpha-glucosidase enzyme, which has a critical role in the lysis of glucose-based polymers in human cells.

METHODS: 4% hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared fromleaves. Patients in treatment (n=50) and control (n=50) groups received 3 mL extract or placebo in water, respectively, and three times a day. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c% were evaluated before and after three months of evaluation. Potential binding sites of 1-DNJ or glucose on the enzyme glucosidase found by docking study. Docking scores were obtained using an energy minimization method by Molegro Virtual Docker software. The Mean ± SD of each variable was compared between groups at the 95% significant level.

RESULTS: Age mean ± SD was equal to 54.79 ± 9.203 (38-69) years. There was no significant difference between intervention and placebo groups considering FBS (p=0.633) but was for HbA1c% (p=0.0011), before treatment. After three months, both FBS and HbA1c% were significantly reduced in patients underleaves extract-treatment. FBS changed was from 182.23 ± 38.65 to 161.23 ± 22.14 mg/dL in treatment group (p<0.001) and from 178.45 ± 39.46 to 166.23 ± 29.64 mg/dL in control group (p<0.001). HbA1c was changed from 7.23 ± 0.25 to 6.13 ± 0.61% in treatment group (p<0.001) and from 7.65 ± 0.85 to 7.12 ± 0.33% in control group (p=0.854). Docking results showed that 1-DNJ binds more efficiently, and with a significant score than glucose, to human alpha-glucosidase.

CONCLUSIONS: This clinical trial and virtual analysis showed that a hydro-alcoholic extract of() leaf may be efficient in reducing the blood glucose and HbA1c% in diabetic patients. Furthermore, docking studies propose a competitive and allosteric regulation for herbal ingredients. Drug-development could be based on the presented idea in this report.

Academic Cite:

Hamid Momeni, Ashraf Salehi, Abdorrahim Absalan, Mehran Akbari. Hydro-alcoholic extract ofreduces fasting blood glucose and HbA1c% in diabetic patients, probably via competitive and allosteric interaction with alpha-glucosidase enzyme; a clinical trial andanalysis. J Complement Integr Med. 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Effectiveness of Black Mulberry Molasses in Prevention of Radiotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: A Randomized Controlled Study in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.


OBJECTIVES: Radiation-induced oral mucositis is one of the problems experienced by 70%-80% of patients receiving radiation therapy (RT). This randomized controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of black mulberry molasses in the prevention of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving RT.

INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Eighty head and neck cancer patients scheduled to undergo RT to the oropharyngeal mucosa were randomly assigned to receive RT (42) or RT plus mulberry molasses (38). The research data were collected with a Patient Description Form, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, an Oral Assessment Guide, and the University of Washington Quality of Life Assessment Questionnaire.

RESULTS: The incidence and severity of oral mucositis were lower in the black mulberry molasses group. However, black mulberry molasses usage was an only independent and significant factor in prevention of mucositis [HR 0.63 (%95 GI 0.40-0.98)]. There were no differences between the quality of life scores of experimental and control groups.

CONCLUSIONS: This randomized controlled study showed that black mulberry molasses usage is an effective intervention in the prevention of the radiation-induced mucositis of head and neck cancer patients. However, to confirm these results, further studies are needed.

Nutritional constituents of mulberry and their potential applications in food and pharmaceuticals


Mulberry is a fast growing deciduous plant found in wide variety of climatic, topographical and soil conditions, and is widely distributed from temperate to subtropical regions. Due to presence of valuable phytochemical constituents, mulberry as a whole plant has been utilized as a functional food since long time. Mulberry fruits are difficult to preserve as they have relatively high water content. Therefore for proper utilization, different value-added products like syrups, squashes, teas, pestil sand köme, pekmez (turkuish by-products), yogurts, jams, jellies, wines, vinegar, breads, biscuits, parathas, and many more are made. In overseas, these value-added products are commercially sold and easily available, though in India, this versatile medicinal plant is still missing its identity at commercial and industrial scale. Leaves of mulberry are economically viable due to their important role in the sericulture industry since ancient times. Mulberries or its extracts exhibit excellent anti-microbial, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer effects and is used to combat different acute and chronic diseases. Different parts of Morus species like fruits, leaves, twigs, and bark exhibit strong anti-tyrosinase inhibition activity that makes it a suitable candidate in cosmetic industries as a whitening agent. The current review provides a comprehensive discussion concerning the phytochemical constituents, functionality and nutraceutical potential of mulberry and as a common ingredient in various cosmetic products.

An In Vitro Study of the Healing Potential of Black Mulberry (Morus nigra L.) Extract in a Liposomal Formulation


Natural compounds are used in modern dermal treatments to avoid side effects commonly associated with conventional treatments. The aim of our study was to develop a liposomal formulation including black mulberry extract and to highlight its potential on the healing of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro using the scratch test. Mulberry-loaded liposomes (Mn_L) were prepared using a thin-film hydration method based on cholesterol (C) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a 1:3 (w/w) ratio. The liposomal formulation was characterized by analyzing its size, electric surface potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro healing effects. Also, the black mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.) were characterized from point of view of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity by Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) (high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization)) analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds namely from hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Among flavonols, quercetin-glucoside represented 50.56%, and chlorogenic acid was the predominant compound among hydroxycinnamic acids (37.06%). In vitro fibroblast wound closure was more effective with mulberry-loaded liposomes (L_Mn) than extracts of mulberries. According to our study, mulberry-loaded liposomes have been shown to be effective in wound healing and can be used as a natural treatment.

The Effect of Oral Care with Black Mulberry Syrup on Oral Mucositis in Patients With COPD


Background: Oral mucositis often affects the quality of life of patients living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Its symptoms include loss of oral mucous membranes, ulceration, bleeding and pain as well as bacterial, fungal and viral infections of the oral mucosa. Objectives: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral care with black mulberry syrup on oral mucositis healing in patients with COPD. Design: This mixed study was carried out in two stages- quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative stage was conducted as a randomized controlled experimental study while the qualitative stage was conducted by in-depth interview method. Setting: This study was conducted at the chest diseases clinic of a tertiary hospital in Turkey. Participants: The randomized controlled experimental study was completed with a total of 40 patients who had been diagnosed with COPD and oral mucositis between March 2017 and June 2018. They were divided into intervention and control groups consisting of 20 patients each. The qualitative study was conducted on 10 patients in the intervention group. Intervention: Patients in the intervention group gargled with 5 ml of black mulberry syrup for an average of 1 minute and swallowed it upon completion. They did this 3 times a day after meals for a period of 15 days after which they were interviewed. Outcome measures: The quantitative data was collected using the Patient Information Form, Oral Evaluation Guideline, and WHO Oral Mucositis Scoring Index, while the qualitative data was collected using the in-depth interview form. Patients' oral mucosa was assessed a total of 3 times during 3 interviews held on the first, seventh and fifteenth days of the study. Results: There was a significant decrease in scores of oral mucositis of the patients in the intervention group at the second and third follow-ups. Oral mucositis of the intervention and the control groups healed at an average of 9.1 ± 2.5 days and 12.1 ± 1.4 days, respectively. In addition, oral care with black mulberry syrup was found to alleviate mucositis-related symptoms. Conclusion: Oral care with black mulberry syrup accelerates mucositis healing and alleviates mucositis-related symptoms.

Combined Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Improved Early Stage of Cutaneous Wound Healing in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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Obesity is a pandemic that causes many health challenges, including difficulties in achieving proper wound healing without complications. The current study investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in the early stages of cutaneous wound healing and the effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) on cutaneous NLRP inflammasome involvement in delayed wound healing mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. After obesity was induced by HFD for 10 weeks, the mice were supplemented with MLFE (at a dose of 500 mg/kg containing 333.3 mg/kg of mulberry leaf extract and 166.7 mg/kg of mulberry fruit extract) by gavage, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. MLFE supplementation ameliorated delayed wound closure in obese mice. While wound size was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose level during the early stage of wound healing, it was strongly correlated with body weight gain and body fat mass during the later stage of wound healing. Under obese conditions, the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome and its related markers (pro-caspase-1 and precursor/mature interleukin 1 beta) were increased at a basal level, but the NLRP3 inflammasome was suppressed during the inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing. However, MLFE supplementation stimulated cutaneous NLRP3 inflammasome in HFD-induced obese mice (day 3). Taken together, stimulating the NLRP3 inflammasome might be beneficial in the early inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing and MLFE could be a potential therapeutic intervention in delayed wound healing through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in obesity.

Do grape and black mulberry molasses have an effect on oral mucositis and quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer?


Objective We aimed to investigate the effect of black mulberry and grape molasses on the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis and quality of life (QoL) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods Patients treated for HNC between 2010 and 2018 in our department were divided into three groups (group 1 = control (n = 14), group 2 = grape molasses (n = 40), and group 3 = black mulberry molasses (n = 40)). Oral mucositis, pain scoring, and weight loss were evaluated weekly. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) General QoL Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and EORTC Head and Neck Cancer QoL Module (QLQ-HN35) were used to evaluate QoL. Results The mean body weight, scores of oral mucositis, and pain were similar among the groups throughout the treatment. Both groups 2 and 3 were associated with improved outcomes for swallowing, opening mouth, and weight loss in the EORTC HN35, and these parameters were not significantly different between groups 2 and 3. Global health score was higher in group 3 at the 6th week of RT compared to that of group 2. Both groups 2 and 3 had improved scores for role functioning, emotional and social functioning, fatigue, appetite loss, and pain throughout the treatment compared to group 1. Conclusions Both grape and black mulberry molasses improved the QoL in HNC patients. No significant difference between black mulberry and grape molasses was found with regard to the healing of oral mucositis.

Novel Mulberry Asava for Diabetes Treatment: Formulation Optimization and Preclinical Studies


Mulberry (Species Morus alba, Moraceae) is known as the plant of immortality. Actives present in mulberry are triterpenes, bioflavonoid, alkaloids, major constituent is 1-deoxynojirimycin. Mainly the plant has been used for bronchitis, wound healing, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, etc. Looking at prospects of asava preparation, we have prepared novel mulberry asava. Being alcoholic preparation may, extract all actives in it, will be stable and will demonstrate improved biopharmaceutical properties. Plackett- Burman design was used to optimize mulberry asava which was further scaled up to 18 lit industrially and analysed for physicochemical characteristics and antidiabetic activity. In pharmacological screening, the effect of Mulberry asava on blood glucose level in diabetic and non-diabetic rats was observed to evaluate its in vivo antidiabetic activity. The blood glucose level was reduced from 267.33 to 97.33 in test and 97.66 mg/dl in standard respectively. While in control it was 355.5 to 394.5 mg/dl. These observations clearly indicate that formulations reduce blood glucose level and bring the glucose metabolism towards a normal level. Hence mulberry leaves sometimes a waste of sericulture industry can be used as single plant-based asava for antidiabetic activity and can serve Type II diabetic population.

Anti‐inflammatory effect of mulberry anthocyanins on experimental dry eye


Aims/Purpose: To investigate the anti‐inflammatory effects of mulberry anthocyanin on dry eye. Methods: HME‐DDS (Hot‐Melt Extrusion‐Drug Delivery System) was used to maximize the content of anthocyanin in mulberry. Experimental dry eye (EDE) was induced by topical 0.2% BAK (benzalkonium chloride) eye drops instilled twice a day for 1 week. The animals were randomly divided into those treated with and without the mulberry HME‐DDS products (10 g/kg/day). Ocular surface staining using fluorescein and Schirmer's test were performed. After 2 weeks of treatments, the animals were sacrificed, and tissues were harvested, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect inflammatory response to compare with the control group. Results: After mulberry HME‐DDS treatments, the corneal staining score was significantly decreased compared to the untreated group (3.33 ± 0.83, 7.63 ± 1.00; p = 0.004). In addition, mulberry HME‐DDS treated group showed a significant increase in tear production compared with the untreated group (8.83 ± 2.29, 6.18 ± 2.44; p = 0.014). The mulberry HME‐DDS products decreased the expression of IL‐1, IL‐6 and IL‐17 in the cornea and lacrimal gland. Conclusions: Mulberry with HME‐DDS technology improved ocular surface findings and tear production. In addition, the mulberry HME‐DDS product reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the cornea and lacrimal gland, and it was speculated that anthocyanins containing mulberry could improve clinical manifestations by suppressing inflammation.

1-Deoxynojirimycin in Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Leaves Ameliorates Stable Angina Pectoris in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease by Improving Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Capacities

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Objective: Stable angina pectoris (SAP) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and blood stasis syndrome (BSS) is a potentially serious threat to public health. NF-κB signaling is associated with angina pectoris. 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which is a unique polyhydroxy alkaloid, is the main active component in mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves and may exhibit protective properties in the prevention of SAP in patients with CHD by affecting the NF-κB pathway. Methods: DNJ was purified from mulberry leaves by using a pretreated cation exchange chromatography column. A total of 144 SAP patients were randomly and evenly divided into experimental (DNJ treatment) and control (conventional treatment) groups. Echocardiography and ascending aortic elasticity were evaluated. The changes in inflammatory, oxidative, and antioxidant factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured before and after a 4-week treatment. Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores were compared between the two groups. The improvement in SAP score, associated symptoms, and BSS was also investigated. The levels of IkB kinase (IKK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and inhibitor of kappa B α (IkBα) were measured by Western blot. Results: After the 4-week treatment, DNJ increased left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced left ventricular mass index, aortic distensibility, and atherosclerosis index (p < 0.05). DNJ intervention increased angina-free walking distance (p < 0.05). DNJ significantly reduced the levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-a, MDA, SAS, HAMD, AP, and BSS scores and increased SOD level (p < 0.05). The total effective rate was significantly increased (p < 0.05). The symptoms of angina attack frequency, nitroglycerin use, chest pain and tightness, shortness of breath, and emotional upset were also improved. DNJ reduced IKK and NF-κB levels and increased IkBα level (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The DNJ in mulberry leaves improved the SAP of patients with CHD and BSS by increasing their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities.

The Mulberry, Morus alba (L.): The Medicinal Herbal Source for Human Health

Pharmacological Properties of Morus nigra L. (Black Mulberry) as A Promising Nutraceutical Resource


Mulberry plants belonging to the Moraceae family have been grown for the purpose of being the nutrient source for silk worm and raw materials for the preparation of jams, marmalades, vinegars, juices, wines, and cosmetics. Morus nigra L. (black mulberry) is native to Southwestern Asia, and it has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for animals and humans. In this article, recent research progress on various biological and pharmacological properties of extracts, fractions, and isolated active constituents from different parts of M. nigra are reviewed. M. nigra exhibited a wide-spectrum of biological and pharmacological therapeutic effects including antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-melanogenic, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anticancer activities. M. nigra also showed protective effects against various human organs and systems, mainly based on its antioxidant capacity. These findings strongly suggest that M. nigra can be used as a promising nutraceutical resource to control and prevent various chronic diseases.

Mulberry leaf extract inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation via depressing IL-6 and TNF-α derived from adipocyte


Epidemiological studies have revealed that obesity and being overweight are associated with increased cancer risk. Adipose tissue is regarded as an endocrine organ that secretes proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which are related to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells were induced and stained with Oil Red O, which revealed marked intracellular lipid accumulation. Adding 15% conditioned medium (CM) from adipogenic -differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, which contained adipocyte-derived factors, to a culture medium of HepG2 cells was discovered to promote cell proliferation by a factor of up to 1.3 compared with the control. Mulberry leaf extract (MLE), with major components including chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid, was revealed to inhibit CM-promoted HepG2 cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of MLE on the proliferation of the signal network was evaluated. Expression of the CM-activated IκB/NFκB, STAT3, and Akt/mTOR pathways were reduced when MLE was administered. Although adipocyte-derived factors are complex, administrating anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6 revealed that MLE blocks signal activation promoted by TNF-α and IL-6. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MLE targets the proliferation signal pathway of the inflammatory response of adipocytes in HCC and could be to prevent obesity-mediated liver cancer.

Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study

Abstract and Figures

High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut.A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19-59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose) versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract.Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC) (glucose (mmol / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316), -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022) and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p

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