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Cranberries

An updated review on chemical compositions, biological capabilities, and clinical benefits of cranberries

Abstract

Cranberries are well-known berry fruits and a member of Ericaceae family. It is a potential source of bioactive components including phenolic acids, flavonols, organic acids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, anthocyanins, etc. Until now, several scientific researches uncovered the positive role of cranberry consumption to suppress human diseases including obesity, diabetes, microbial infection, hepatotoxicity, hypertensive and cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and cancer. This review focused on the chemical components of cranberries, as well as comprehensively explored the biological capabilities of cranberries based on recent findings. Furthermore, the health benefits of cranberries were also discussed based on recent clinical studies. Our review reported that cranberries are a rich source of various minerals, vitamins, organic acids, sugars, and polyphenols. Cranberries exert potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer activity via regulating several signaling pathways such as PI3K/Akt/Nrf2, Nrf2/ARE, PI3K/Akt/COX-2, TLR4-NF-kB-p38 MAPK, JAK-STAT, PPARs, TGFβ/Smad, ACE I, and others. Among all bioactivities, antimicrobial activity of cranberries is promising due to bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antibiofilm properties. Recent clinical studies further confirmed the health benefits and safety, though extensive clinical research are recommended to ensure these effects at the clinical level. Apart from this, consumption of cranberries and their products is suggested because of the rich source of bioactive components to ameliorate biological disorders.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371730709_An_updated_review_on_chemical_compositions_biological_capabilities_and_clinical_benefits_of_cranberries


Oral and physiological benefits of cranberries

Abstract

Cranberries are known to prevent urinary tract infection and it is also helpful in maintaining oral health. Cranberry juice is a widely consumed and recommended beverage for preventing urinary tract infections. Clinical studies in women have shown that cranberries help to stop the recurrence of infection, as the evidence showed the presence of various extracts of cranberries in the patients’ urinary tracts, proving the effectiveness and the mechanism. The primary compound involved in the fight against the infection is Proanthocyanidin A which is now the focus of studies to treat common diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, as well as dental caries and periodontal disease, from which it is speculated the mechanism involves disrupting the bacterial adhesion.



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/369834836_Oral_and_physiological_benefits_of_cranberries




Cranberries and Blueberries in Oral Cancer. Plants 2023, 12, 2330. Plants


Abstract

Background: Oral cancer has a high prevalence worldwide, and this disease is caused by genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. The main risk factors associated with oral cancer are smoking and alcohol. Results: There are various strategies to reduce risk factors, including prevention programs as well as the consumption of an adequate diet that includes phytochemical compounds derived from cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon A.) and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.); these compounds exhibit antitumor properties. Results: The main outcome of this review is as follows: the properties of phytochemicals derived from cranberries were evaluated for protection against risk factors associated with oral cancer. Conclusions: The secondary metabolites of cranberries promote biological effects that provide protection against smoking and alcoholism. An alternative for the prevention of oral cancer can be the consumption of these cranberries and blueberries.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371595813_Cranberries_and_Blueberries_in_Oral_Cancer_Plants_2023_12_2330_Plants


A186 INFLAMMATION MODIFIES DOSE-DEPENDENT RESPONSES OF INTESTINAL ANTI-TUMOUR MICRORNAS TO CRANBERRY PROANTHOCYANIDIN AND ITS MICROBIAL METABOLITE 3-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID

Abstract

Background Cranberries are a rich source of proanthocyanidins (PAC), a type of polyphenol with anti-cancer properties. We previously found that PAC, along with its microbially-derived metabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid (HPPA), trigger unique regulatory responses of microRNAs (miRNAs) in intestinal epithelial cells including the upregulation of miR-146a-5p. Both miR-146a-5p and miR363-3p are anti-inflammatory and downregulate anti-tumorigenic signalling pathways such as the interleukin (IL)-17 and wingless-related integration site (Wnt) respectively. miR-146a-5p also attenuates IL-17-promoting cytokines levels (e.g., IL-6). Aims To determine if miR-146a-5p and miR-363-3p respond to different physiologically relevant concentrations of PAC and HPPA in inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. Methods Fully differentiated Caco-2BBe1 colonic epithelial cells were treated with two doses of PAC-enriched cranberry extract (50μg/ml, 100μg/ml), HPPA (5μg/ml, 10μg/ml), or with Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM; control) for 24 hours, followed by IL-1β (1ng/ml) or mock stimulation for three hours. Human IL-6 homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) kits were used to quantify IL-6 in cell supernatant. RNA was extracted and used for miRNA profiling using Nanostring technology. Statistical analysis was performed in R version 4.2.1 with the R-packages NanostringDiff, NanostringNorm, and Pheatmap. Results At homeostasis, 42 and 2 (miR-146a and miR363-3p) miRNAs, respectively, uniquely responded to increasing PAC or HPPA concentrations. In the inflammatory state, no miRNAs responded to increasing concentrations of PAC and HPPA. However, the expression of miR-363-3p increased (qampersand:003C0.001) in response to 50μg/ml of PAC + IL-1β but decreased in response to 5μg/ml of HPPA + IL-1β , and the expression of miR-146a-5p increased (qampersand:003C0.001) in response to 5μg/ml of HPPA + IL-1β, and 50μg/ml PAC + IL-1β. Predicted miRNA gene-pathway analysis revealed that miR-146a-5p, miR-363-3p, and the other 42 miRNAs commonly target pathways involved in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), hedgehog, and Wnt pathways. Though, in inflamed cells, only HPPA (5 or 10 μg/ml) attenuated IL-6 secretion (pampersand:003C0.05), which may be driven by increased expression of miR-146a-5p. Conclusions These findings suggest that cranberries proanthocyanidins and their metabolites affect miRNAs involved in cancer related pathways in different manners and concentrations, which may depend on the inflammatory status. The gut microbiota may be partially responsible for unlocking these effects. Funding Agencies Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc. and the Natural Sciences of Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/378281330_A186_INFLAMMATION_MODIFIES_DOSE-DEPENDENT_RESPONSES_OF_INTESTINAL_ANTI-TUMOUR_MICRORNAS_TO_CRANBERRY_PROANTHOCYANIDIN_AND_ITS_MICROBIAL_METABOLITE_3-4-HYDROXYPHENYL-PROPIONIC_ACID



Therapeutic potential of cranberry for kidney health and diseases

Abstract and Figures

A higher risk of cardiovascular mortality in persons with chronic renal failure (CRF) is linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, cellular aging, and gut dysbiosis, to name a few contributing factors. According to a growing body of evidence, some dietary choices may reduce the severity of certain adverse effects. Specialized databases such as PubMed/Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and UpToDate were searched to find published studies that focus on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of cranberries’ bioactive compounds on CRF and human health. Cranberry supplementation has been demonstrated in clinical research to offer health advantages for humans, such as reducing urinary tract infections. Recently, it has been reported that cranberry polyphenols possess anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant effects and are also known to have the capacity to affect gut flora. Scientific studies on the beneficial pharmacological effects of cranberries on human health may provide an understanding of traditional cranberry therapy in chronic kidney disease and other chronic conditions. However, translational studies are needed to determine the exact dose that can be administered to humans as well as the validation of nutritional supplements that contain cranberry extract. Throughout the last few decades, several studies have revealed that various cranberry compounds exert anti‐infective and anti‐inflammatory effects on the urinary system. Cranberries’ capacity to lower oxidative stress and inflammation as well as to improve gut microbiota balance may be beneficial for chronic renal failure patients. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential mechanisms of action of cranberries in the prevention of chronic renal failure.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/363718187_Therapeutic_potential_of_cranberry_for_kidney_health_and_diseases




Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) seeds: An exceptional source of tocotrienols

Abstract

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) are rich in beneficial phytochemicals and are valuable ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and pharmaceutical products, contributing to improved human health and well-being. Nevertheless, cranberry seed chemical composition is still scarcely investigated. Therefore, in the current study, tocochromanol (tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3)) profile variance with respect to genotypes and harvest seasons were investigated. Tocochromanols were extracted by using a standard saponification protocol, as well as an environmentally friendlier and more rapid alternative extraction method, in the seeds of eight cranberry cultivars from two harvest seasons. γ-T3 constituted 87 % of the tocochromanols found in cranberry seeds, while the remaining 13 % were as follows: α-T3 (7 %), δ-T3 (3 %), and γ-T (3 %). Year, cultivar, and their interaction have a significant impact on the content of tocochromanols in cranberry seeds. Tocochromanol concentration varies significantly between cultivars, but is relatively stable over different harvest seasons. Concentration did not significantly differ between the standard saponification protocol and the rapid, environmentally friendlier method. Thereby, the present study shows that the simple and environmentally conscious/friendlier approach is feasible for the extraction of tocochromanols from cranberry seeds with comparable recovery, repeatability and reproducibility, to the saponification protocol. 50 days' free access starting from 21.03.2024 by using the following link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1in%7ES15Dynv0vi



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/379293976_Cranberry_Vaccinium_macrocarpon_Aiton_seeds_An_exceptional_source_of_tocotrienols


Health Benefits of Cranberries: An In-Depth Overview


Abstract and Figures

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon), small red berries with a distinctive tart flavour, have captivated human attention for centuries due to their potential health benefits and culinary versatility. This abstract provides a concise overview of the comprehensive exploration of cranberries, including their nutritional composition, bioactive compounds, health-promoting properties, potential therapeutic applications, and culinary uses. Cranberries boast a rich nutritional profile, containing essential vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and an array of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins. These compounds contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cranberries, potentially reducing the risk of chronic diseases and supporting overall well-being. One of the standout qualities of cranberries is their impact on urinary tract health. The presence of proanthocyanidins inhibits bacterial adhesion to urinary tract walls, offering protection against urinary tract infections. Additionally, cranberries may have positive effects on cardiovascular health, diabetes management, oral health, and more. While research on these potential therapeutic applications is ongoing , cranberries' diverse benefits have piqued scientific interest. Culinary enthusiasts have harnessed the unique flavour of cranberries in an array of dishes. From classic cranberry sauces to innovative desserts, these berries infuse dishes with color, taste, and nutritional value. As our understanding of cranberries deepens, their role as a functional food that bridges the gap between health and taste becomes more evident. In conclusion, cranberries hold a special place in both the realm of nutrition and culinary artistry. Their potential to promote health, prevent ailments, and elevate gastronomic experiences makes them a jewel in nature's bounty. Through this comprehensive exploration, we uncover the myriad facets of cranberries, celebrating their role as a source of both wellness and flavor.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/374700260_Health_Benefits_of_Cranberries_An_In-Depth_Overview


Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections

Abstract

Background: Cranberries (particularly in the form of cranberry juice) have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of cranberries in treating such infections. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of cranberries for the treatment of UTIs. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 1 August 2023 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Registry Portal (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of cranberry juice or cranberry products for the treatment of UTIs. Studies of men, women or children were to be included. Data collection and analysis: Titles and abstracts of studies that were potentially relevant to the review were screened and studies that were clearly ineligible were discarded. Further information was sought from the authors where papers contained insufficient information to make a decision about eligibility. Main results: No studies were found that fulfilled all of our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were excluded because they were the wrong study design, mixed interventions or did not report any relevant outcomes. One study is ongoing; however, its current status is unknown. Authors' conclusions: After a thorough search, no RCTs which assessed the effectiveness of cranberry juice for the treatment of UTIs were found. Therefore, at the present time, there is no good quality evidence to suggest that it is effective for the treatment of UTIs. Well-designed parallel-group, double-blind studies comparing cranberry juice and other cranberry products versus placebo to assess the effectiveness of cranberry juice in treating UTIs are needed. Outcomes should include a reduction in symptoms, sterilisation of the urine, side effects and adherence to therapy. The dosage (amount and concentration) and duration of therapy should also be assessed. Consumers and clinicians will welcome the evidence from these studies.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/376529009_Cranberries_for_treating_urinary_tract_infections


Safe Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections by American Cranberry

Abstract

Cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) grows on evergreen shrubs that are native to North America. Cranberry is a term derived from the contraction of ‘‘crane berry.’’ This name is derived from the nickname of the bilberry flower, which, when it withers, is similar in appearance to the head and neck of the sand crane, a bird that often feeds on the berries of this plant. The cranberry is part of the Ericaceae family and naturally grows in acidic swamps full of peat moss in humid forests. Cranberries are composed of water (88%), organic acids (including salicylate), fructose, vitamin C (high levels, i.e., 200 mg/kg of fresh berries), flavonoids, anthocyanidins, catechins, and triterpinoids. The chemical constituents responsible for their taste are the iridoid glycosides. The anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins (PAC) are tannins (stable polyphenols) found only in vaccinium berries and function as a natural plant defense system against microbes. Common preparations with cranberries include fresh, whole berries, gelatinized products, juices (usually 10-25% pure juice) and capsules. Pure juice is too acidic (pH, 2.5) and unpalatable, even with sweeteners .Despite cranberry presentation, it is generally recommended to consume cranberries just prior or two hours after meals; it is also important to drink lots of water, mainly after preparations from dehydrated juices. Cranberry juice, predominantly in the form of a juice cocktail drink with approximately 25% cranberry juice, has been the traditional choice of most women seeking to prevent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). American cranberry has a complex and rich phytochemical composition, particularlyflavan-3-ols, A-type procyanidins (PACs), anthocyanins, benzoic acid, and ursolic acid. Cranberryflavan-3-ols are present as monomers, oligomers, and polymers). These oligomers and polymers are also referred to as PACs or condensed tannins and representw85% of the total flavan-3-ols on a weight basis. Cranberry is the main source of peonidin among 100 foods commonly consumed in the United States. Quercetin 3-galactoside is the predominant form, but at least 11 other glycosides are present in lower concentrations. Some of these, such as quercetin-3-acetylrhamnoside are rare in berries. In the Phenol Explorer database, the flavonol content of plant foods is usually <3 mg/100 g FW, although bilberry, black-berry, and blueberry contain 3.2–17 mg/kg. Cranberry fruit is classed as a functional food due to the naturally high content of compounds, such as polyphenols, which are believed to have antioxidant and therefore health-promoting properties. Health benefits of cranberry consumption range from cardio protective effects due to improved cholesterol profiles to aiding digestive health. Cranberry exists in various forms, including the raw fruit (fresh and dried), cranberry juice and cranberry extract in capsule/tablet formulations. Cranberry extract could be a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated UTIs. Proanthocyanidin (PAC) with A-type linkages, or their metabolites, is believed to be the active ingredient in cranberry, preventing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from binding to the bladder uroepithelium and thereby reducing the ability of E. coli to cause and sustain a UTI. Cranberries have also been found to improve lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and lower several markers of cardio metabolic risk. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests an important role of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. In addition to the anti-inflammatory effects, cranberries may also influence intestinal barrier integrity, which is another essential element of intestinal health. Cranberry was reported as the main source of peonidin among 100 foods commonly consumed in the United States. However, in the majority of studies, the total anthocyanin content is re-ported rather than amounts of individual anthocyanins. This approach may change because the bioavailability and health effects of anthocyanins seem to be affected by the structures of the aglyconesor the glycosidicmoieties . Quercetin 3-galactoside is the predominant form, but at least 11 other glycosides are present in lower concentrations. Some of these, such as quercetin-3-acetylrhamnoside are rare in berries. As shown in the Phenol Explorer database, the flavonol content of plant foods is usually <3 mg/100 g FW, although bilberry, black-berry, and blueberry contain 3.2–17 mg/kg.





https://www.researchgate.net/publication/380828038_Safe_Treatment_of_Urinary_Tract_Infections_by_American_Cranberry







Cranberry fruit epicuticular wax benefits and identification of a wax-associated molecular marker

Abstract and Figures

Background As the global climate changes, periods of abiotic stress throughout the North American cranberry growing regions will become more common. One consequence of high temperature extremes and drought conditions is sunscald. Scalding damages the developing berry and reduces yields through fruit tissue damage and/or secondary pathogen infection. Irrigation runs to cool the fruit is the primary approach to controlling sunscald. However, it is water intensive and can increase fungal-incited fruit rot. Epicuticular wax functions as a barrier to various environmental stresses in other fruit crops and may be a promising feature to mitigate sunscald in cranberry. In this study we assessed the function of epicuticular wax in cranberries to attenuate stresses associated with sunscald by subjecting high and low epicuticular wax cranberries to controlled desiccation and light/heat exposure. A cranberry population that segregates for epicuticular wax was phenotyped for epicuticular fruit wax levels and genotyped using GBS. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses of these data identified a locus associated with epicuticular wax phenotype. A SNP marker was developed in the QTL region to be used for marker assisted selection. Results Cranberries with high epicuticular wax lost less mass percent and maintained a lower surface temperature following heat/light and desiccation experiments as compared to fruit with low wax. QTL analysis identified a marker on chromosome 1 at position 38,782,094 bp associated with the epicuticular wax phenotype. Genotyping assays revealed that cranberry selections homozygous for a selected SNP have consistently high epicuticular wax scores. A candidate gene (GL1-9), associated with epicuticular wax synthesis, was also identified near this QTL region. Conclusions Our results suggest that high cranberry epicuticular wax load may help reduce the effects of heat/light and water stress: two primary contributors to sunscald. Further, the molecular marker identified in this study can be used in marker assisted selection to screen cranberry seedlings for the potential to have high fruit epicuticular wax. This work serves to advance the genetic improvement of cranberry crops in the face of global climate change.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/369823244_Cranberry_fruit_epicuticular_wax_benefits_and_identification_of_a_wax-associated_molecular_marker


A polyphenol-rich cranberry supplement improves muscle oxidative capacity in healthy adults

Abstract

Cranberries are rich in polyphenols, have a high antioxidant capacity, and may protect against exercise-induced free radical production. Mitochondria are known producers of free radical in skeletal muscle, and preventing overproduction of radicals may be a viable approach to improve muscle health. This stud aimed to investigate the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract on muscle oxidative capacity and oxygenation metrics in healthy active adults. 17 participants (9 males, 8 females) were tested at: i) baseline, ii) 2 hours following an acute CE dose (0.7 g/kg of body mass), and iii) after 4 weeks of daily supplement consumption (0.3 g/kg of body mass). At each time point, muscle oxygen capacity was determined using near-infrared spectroscopy to measure the recovery kinetics of muscle oxygen consumption following a 15-20 s contraction of the vastus lateralis. Cranberry supplementation over 28 days significantly improved muscle oxygen capacity (k-constant, 2.8 ± 1.8 vs. 3.9 ± 2.2; p = 0.02). This was supported by a greater rate of oxygen depletion during a sustained cuff occlusion (-0.04 ± 0.02 vs. -0.07 ± 0.03; p = 0.02). Resting muscle oxygen consumption was not affected by cranberry consumption. Our results suggest that cranberry supplementation may play a role in improving mitochondrial health, which could lead to better muscle oxygen capacity in healthy active adult populations. The study protocol was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT06186297).



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/379870733_A_polyphenol-rich_cranberry_supplement_improves_muscle_oxidative_capacity_in_healthy_adults


Cranberry supplementation improves physiological markers of performance in trained runners

Abstract

[Purpose] Cranberries have the highest polyphenol and antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables and may protect against exercise-induced free radical production, consequently improving performance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CE) on time-trial performance and lactate response following exercise.[Methods] A total of 14 trained runners were tested at i) baseline, ii) 2 h following an acute CE dose (0.7 g/kg of body mass), and iii) 4 weeks after daily supplement consumption (0.3 g/kg of body mass). At each time point, runners performed a 1500-m race followed by a 400-m race where the live vastus lateralis oxygenation changes were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy and blood lactate was measured at rest and 1 and 3 min after each trial. The Shapiro-Wilk test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to establish significance (P <0.05).[Results] Cranberry supplementation over 28 d improved aerobic performance during the 1500-m time trial, whereas the acute dose had no effect. More specifically, muscle reoxygenation rates were significantly faster after 28 d compared to baseline (P = 0.04; η² = 0.29), and a trend towards slower deoxygenation rate was observed (P = 0.13; η² = 0.20). Chronic CE consumption also buffered the post-exercise lactate response for the 400-m race (P = 0.01; η² = 0.27), while no effects were seen for the longer race.[Conclusion] Our results suggest that cranberry supplementation may have ergogenic effects, as it improves physiological markers of performance during short- and long-distance running.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/377600945_Cranberry_supplementation_improves_physiological_markers_of_performance_in_trained_runners


Comparative evaluation of the fruit of the bolt cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris pers.) in the conditions of the Moscow region

Abstract

About 50,000 plants are used for economic purposes, but only a small part has been introduced into the culture. The main method of obtaining vegetable raw materials is direct collection in places of natural growth of plants. Cultivation and industrial cultivation of wild plants will reduce the anthropogenic pressure on natural habitats. Oxycoccus palustris Pers. is a species that needs to be actively introduced into culture. Cranberries contain many biologically active substances. In natural habitats, a high polymorphism of plants is observed. In this regard, there is a need to select promising forms and evaluate their economically valuable traits of marsh cranberry. The aim of the study is to compare and evaluate the prospects for using samples of marsh cranberries with different berry shapes in the natural conditions of the Moscow region. The study was conducted on the basis of materials collected from the territory of a swamp located in the Domodedovo urban district of the Moscow region in 2020 and 2021. The plants had different berry shapes: round (typical), intermediate, and drop-shaped. Accounting and observations were carried out according to the standard methodology for setting up experiments with fruit crops. The analysis of experimental data was carried out by the method of single-factor analysis of variance. According to the results of the study, it turned out that the shape of the fruit affects the variability of the length, width, weight and number of developed seeds. Significant differences in the length, width, weight and number of mature seeds in samples with different fruit shapes were determined. The obtained results testify to the biological diversity of fruit forms in marsh cranberries (Oxycoccus palustris Pers.). It has been established that samples with a drop-shaped form are most original, which creates the prerequisites for the use of tear-shaped berries more widely due to their decorative effect and fewer seeds in the fruit. Keywords: CRANBERRY, FRUITS, SEEDS, ANALYSIS OF ANOVA, DIFFERENCES



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/367584749_Comparative_evaluation_of_the_fruit_of_the_bolt_cranberry_Oxycoccus_palustris_pers_in_the_conditions_of_the_Moscow_region


Cranberries and Cancer: An Update of Preclinical Studies Evaluating the Cancer Inhibitory Potential of Cranberry and Cranberry Derived Constituents


Abstract and Figures

Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries or cranberry derived constituents against 17 different cancers utilizing a variety of in vitro techniques; whereas, in vivo studies supported the inhibitory action of cranberries toward cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, prostate, glioblastoma and lymphoma. Mechanisms of cranberry-linked cancer inhibition include cellular death induction via apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy; reduction of cellular proliferation; alterations in reactive oxygen species; and modification of cytokine and signal transduction pathways. Given the emerging positive preclinical effects of cranberries, future clinical directions targeting cancer or premalignancy will be considered


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306352054_Cranberries_and_Cancer_An_Update_of_Preclinical_Studies_Evaluating_the_Cancer_Inhibitory_Potential_of_Cranberry_and_Cranberry_Derived_Constituents


Say ‘No’ to Cancer and ‘Yes’ to Cranberry: The Role of Cranberry Extract in Inhibition of Growth of Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

Abstract

Background/aim: Lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality due to cancer death. Treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still challenging. Cranberries contain many rich bioactive components that may help fight cancer. The action of cranberry against some cancer types has been reported, however, its role in lung cancer has only been investigated in large-cell lung cancer. In this study, we expanded current research on the role of cranberry in LUAD. Materials and methods: A549 LUAD cancer cells were treated with commercial cranberry extract (CE). Proliferation of A549 cells was measured with a clonogenic survival assay and quick proliferation assay. Caspase-3 activity was used to evaluate apoptosis of A549 cells. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was conducted to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms involved in the action of CE. Results: Treatment of LUAD with CE reduced the percentage of A549 colonies. This was consistent with the decrease in the optic density of cancer cells after treatment with CE. Caspase-3 activity increased after treatment with CE. The anti-proliferative effect of CE on A549 cells correlated with reduced expression of pro-proliferation molecules cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and CDK4. The pro-apoptotic effect of CE on A549 cells correlated with the reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule caspase 8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (FLIP). Conclusion: CE had an inhibitory effect on the growth of LUAD cells by modulation of both pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic molecules. Our research hopes to guide future treatment options for LUAD.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371821242_Say_%27No%27_to_Cancer_and_%27Yes%27_to_Cranberry_The_Role_of_Cranberry_Extract_in_Inhibition_of_Growth_of_Lung_Adenocarcinoma_Cells


American cranberries and health benefits – an evolving story of 25 years

Abstract and Figures

Cranberries contain various types of bioactive components. Scientists have been studying cranberries' beneficial effects on urinary tract health since the 20th century. In the 21st century, the protection provided by cranberry phytochemicals against cancer and vascular diseases has drawn more attention from researchers. Anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonols in cranberries were all documented to have potential effects on cancer prevention. The cardiometabolic effects of cranberries have been investigated in several clinical trials. It was found that cranberries positively affect atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles and that they reduced several cardiometabolic risk factors. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests other important roles of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. Cranberry juice or cranberries have been shown to inhibit the colonization of H. pylori in stomach, and protect against intestinal inflammation. For future research, clinical trials with improved study design are urgently needed to demonstrate cranberries' benefits on urinary tract health and cardiometabolic diseases. Hypothesis‐driven studies using animals or cell culture are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberries' effects on digestive health. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322366922_American_cranberries_and_health_benefits_-_an_evolving_story_of_25_years

Cranberry: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Impact on Human Health: Overview


Abstract

Cranberries are a rich source of bioactive compounds that comprise a healthy diet. Cranberry is abundant in nutritional components and many bioactive compounds that have antioxidant properties. Both American (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and European (Vaccinium oxycoccus) cranberry species are rich in polyphenols such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonoids, and is one of the few fruits that is high in proanthocyanidins, which is linked to many health benefits. The review systematizes information on the chemical composition of cranberry, its antioxidant effect, and the beneficial impact on human health and disease prevention after cranberry consumption, and in particular, its effect against urinary tract inflammation with both adults and children, cardiovascular, oncology diseases, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, tooth decay and periodontitis, Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the stomach and other diseases. Additional research needs to study cranberry proteomics profiling, polyphenols interaction and synergism with other biologically active compounds from natural ingredients and what is important in formulation of new functional foods and supplements.


Keywords: cranberry, anthocyanins, antioxidant, proanthocyanidins, urinary tract infection, polyphenols


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8911768/


Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition.


6.1. CRANBERRY: INTRODUCTION AND TRADITIONAL ORIGINS

The name “cranberry” reportedly derives from the Pilgrim name for the fruit “craneberry,” because the small, pink blossoms that appear in the spring resemble the head and bill of a Sandhill crane. Cranberries are unique among fruits. They can grow and survive only under a special combination of factors. They require acid peat soil, adequate freshwater supply, sand, and a growing season that stretches from April to November and is followed by a period of dormancy in the winter months that provides an extended cold period, necessary for fruiting buds to mature. Contrary to popular belief, cranberries do not grow in water. Instead, they grow on vines in impermeable beds that are layered with sand, peat, gravel, and clay. These beds, commonly known as “bogs,” were originally made by glacial deposits, but now, they can be made by humans. Growers do not have to replant, since an undamaged cranberry vine will survive indefinitely. Some vines in Massachusetts are more than 150 years old. European settlers adopted the Native American uses of the fruit and found that cranberry is a valuable bartering tool. American whalers and mariners carried cranberries on their voyages to prevent scurvy. In 1816, Captain Henry Hall was the first to successfully cultivate cranberries (Cape Cod Cranberry Grower’s Association, http://www.cranberries.org/cranberries/history.html). Today, cranberries are available in both fresh and processed forms. There are many varieties of cranberry fruit; white cranberry is an early harvest cranberry, which is picked 2–3 weeks prior to ripening.



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92762/




Cranberry


Herbal Use

Cranberry juice and crushed cranberries have been used for a long time in the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections.16 Traditionally, cranberries have also been used for many problems, such as stomach ailments, anorexia, vomiting, and blood diseases, as well as in wound dressings.17 A systematic review of cranberry products for the prevention of UTI reported that two good-quality randomized control trials found there is some evidence that cranberry juice may decrease the number of symptomatic UTIs over a 12-month period in women, but the same is not clear about all age groups. Also, the optimum dosage and method of administration (e.g., juice or tablets) is not clear.19



https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/cranberry




Bow Down To The Medicinal Power Of Cranberries

If you've ever bitten into a raw cranberry, you know it's as bitter as a lime. Native Americans embraced that acidity to fight infection, and pilgrims believed there was something in the red skin of cranberries that fought scurvy.

Scientists today are investigating dozens of health-promoting compounds found in cranberries, and they're finding that there's a lot of truth to the lore of centuries past.

Deconstructing Berries

At the USDA's Food Composition and Methods Development Lab in Beltsville, Md., food chemists are using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to detect what exactly is inside a cranberry. They're even finding compounds scientists didn't know about 20 years ago.

https://www.npr.org/2010/11/12/131272331/bow-down-to-the-medicinal-power-of-cranberries

An updated review on chemical compositions, biological capabilities, and clinical benefits of cranberries


Highlights

Physical properties and phytochemicals of cranberries are discussed.

Recent biological capabilities of cranberry components and products are summarized.

Cranberries showed promising antimicrobial activity via exerting bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antibiofilm effect.

Potential clinical benefits of cranberries are included based on recent studies.

Cranberries and its products consumption are suggested to ameliorate biological disorders.



https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S221242922300528X



Therapeutic potential of cranberry for kidney health and diseases


Abstract

A higher risk of cardiovascular mortality in persons with chronic renal failure (CRF) is linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, cellular aging, and gut dysbiosis, to name a few contributing factors. According to a growing body of evidence, some dietary choices may reduce the severity of certain adverse effects. Specialized databases such as PubMed/Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and UpToDate were searched to find published studies that focus on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of cranberries’ bioactive compounds on CRF and human health. Cranberry supplementation has been demonstrated in clinical research to offer health advantages for humans, such as reducing urinary tract infections. Recently, it has been reported that cranberry polyphenols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and are also known to have the capacity to affect gut flora. Scientific studies on the beneficial pharmacological effects of cranberries on human health may provide an understanding of traditional cranberry therapy in chronic kidney disease and other chronic conditions. However, translational studies are needed to determine the exact dose that can be administered to humans as well as the validation of nutritional supplements that contain cranberry extract.


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/efd2.33


The Healing Power of Cranberries



In a world where maintaining good health is paramount, I’ve found a simple yet powerful addition to my daily routine — cranberry juice. Not only does it enhance my gut health, but it also offers a natural way to prevent urinary tract infections. Let’s delve into the science behind why cranberries are a game-changer for overall well-being.



https://medium.com/@jasmineyapcom/the-healing-power-of-cranberries-b766a00bdda4





Cranberry antioxidant power on oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial damage


ABSTRACT

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the fruits containing antioxidants in great quantity and of high quality. From recent research, it is evident that both cranberry and its products, when consumed chronically or acutely, boost the antioxidant effect. Likewise, most studies revealed the anti-inflammatory potential of the cranberry polyphenols. Both effects exert direct action mechanisms, revealed by the ability of the polyphenols to remove the reactive oxygen species, as well as indirect effects, represented by the action of these phytochemicals on the cell signaling pathways and genetic expression. A limited number of articles that evaluated the effects of cranberry on mitochondrial damages are available. However, an enhancement in the functions of this organelle was confirmed by the increased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, further studies are required to demonstrate the benefits credited to the use of cranberry, as well as to describe the action mechanisms of the polyphenols.


https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10942912.2017.1409758



Israeli researcher proves the healing power of the cranberry

Cranberries have long been known as a popular folk remedy for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but until recently there was no scientific evidence to back up this claim. Now Professor Itzhak Ofek of Tel Aviv University has discovered that the benefits ascribed to cranberries are not only real – there are several more as well.


“Cranberries started as a folk medicine in the US,” Ofek told ISRAEL21c. “Every fourth American in the ’60s knew it was good for urinary tract infection.” Ofek’s goal was to find out the truth behind the myth.


With his research funded by the cranberry juice-producing monolith Ocean Spray, Ofek recently published his findings in the journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. There is only one snag: the benefits of cranberries, though prodigious, appear to apply only to women.


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